What would you say about the previous season, so special to you?It was very important in my life because I made the leap to the professional team. Premiere with Vasco, which is what I worked from the beginning, was very special, a huge emotion.Did you think you would have such a quick adaptation?No, not so much, although I have always worked hard to play as I am doing in the main team. I am very happy about that.The worst was the injury that made him leave the U-17 World Cup once started, in which he was one of the players to follow and Madrid wanted to see him …It is very sad to get out of such a great competition, but thank God I am recovered and my teammates honored me. They made me very happy and we won the title. 19 How is he as a player?Very good, it ends very well, it is very aggressive in the area, it will do many goals.And as a person?Very nice, good people, with a very cool charisma. “Reinier is my ‘parceiro’. He deserves to go to Madrid for the person he is and for working so hard” Do people stop him a lot on the street?Yes, everywhere I go they ask me for photos, videos … Because of my hair, they also recognize me very fast (laughs). I feel very happy to be able to assist you.From whom do you take ideas for your spectacular dribbles?Neymar does many and sometimes I watch videos of him, but I almost always improvise.How do they come up?I try to get the best resource, simply, in every action. The best thing to get the ball in the best possible way to the partner, not to humiliate or anything to the contrary. They are different plays.Do rivals accept it as such or do they take it badly?At first they tried to intimidate me, they yelled at me a lot, but I didn’t let them get into my head. As the championship progressed, I played many games, they were seeing that haggling is my best quality and they got used to it. Magno Sizes With only 17 years, Talles Magno is giving much to talk in Brazil. In 2019 he jumped to the first team of Vasco da Gama, which renewed him with a 50 million euros clause, and won the U-17 World Cup, a tournament he had to leave due to injury. The eye-catching forward attends ACE to review his still short career and analyze his present, his future or to his friend Reinier, new signing of Real Madrid. Magno Sizes “Neymar does a lot of dribbling and sometimes I watch videos of him, but I almost always improvise” What did they say?They yelled at me “You’re not going to pass!”, “You’re not going to play here!” … but I didn’t let them influence me.Did he answer them when he was haggling them?No, no, never, I kept quiet.And what did his teammates do?They defended me a lot. Whenever I dribbled the other team’s players wanted to scare me and they reacted. There were huge pikes when I made some pretty play.Who is your ‘bodyguard’ header?Leandro Castán, the captain (laughs). Who do you look like?To Ronaldo because, like him, I move a lot, I have different resources …It renewed until 2022 in November, when the usual thing in Brazil lately is to prepare the ground to go to Europe as soon as possible. What plans do you have?I started at the base of Vasco and the extension was to increase the contract and the clause, to value me and, consequently, the club. My thought is to give the best to the team to be useful and, when an opportunity comes, take it.Where, ideally, would that opportunity be?I talk a lot with my family and what we are looking for is a better structure, anytime, anywhere if I am happy. I do not have preferences.Its clause is 50 million euros.I like it that way because my classmates and family always make me very calm, that I don’t think about it and only worry about being well in the field, without counting on what happens outside.You know Reinier very well, next player in Madrid, right?Yes is my parceiro. He deserves to go to Madrid for the person he is and for working so hard. We have a great friendship.
Toni Moya. 22 years. MidfielderOne of the most projected and future footballers of Atlético B. Pivote, stands out for his versatility: when Simeone has needed him, he has placed him in a position that is not his, central, and has always responded. With character, strength and experience, he is characterized by his patience and driving. Last summer he was about to leave on loan to a Segunda like Almería to continue adding experience. For many he is called to be the successor of a milestone such as Gabi.Camel. 19 years. ForwardIf something has Camel it is a goal. An idyll. He is what stands out the most from a footballer who, like Riquelme, treasures impudence and personality. He is not afraid of anything in the area, he stalks everything, this is evident in his numbers, an amazing ability to score. This season, five goals in 19 games; last, 12 in 26 between the Youth League, the B and his debut with the first team, in which he scored.Germán Valera. 18 years. ForwardHis signing was the cause of the breakdown of relations between Atlético and Villarreal. Captain of the U17 at the 2019 World Cup in Brazil, he debuted this season with Cholo and, above all, he stands out for his dribbling and overflowing. Left-handed, he likes to play a changed band, on the right, where it is pure electricity. For L’Equipe, one of the 20 most under-18 footballers in Europe.Poveda. 23 years. ForwardA break from the crusader in December cut his incredible streak at Atlético B this season. Ten games, ten goals. They fell out of his pocket. Simeone, even when he was most in need of losses in the first team, gave him the alternative, with seven minutes against Granada. Zaragoza was looking for his signing above all things, due to the loss of Dwamena, in the past winter market. Everything broke on December 9 against Getafe B, when his right knee cracked.Sweetbread 19 years old. ForwardThe first footballer born in the 21st century to play with Atlético dazzled two seasons ago by his self-confidence when going up to B and in his games under Cholo. Seasoned this season at Deportivo, it is all character and personality (in Depor’s darkest days, Anquela said: “We need more footballers like Mollejo”). Forward, in A Coruña, Fernando Vázquez exploits his versatility, placing him as a lane on the left in his scheme of three centrals. The football that comes after the coronavirus will be another. Games without an audience, the end of a League in July and the teams, more drowned in economics, forced to look at their quarry. The Athletic, who three seasons ago faced two windows without being able to sign because of a FIFA sanction, has taken care of it and has pampered it, filling it with anticipation of names that are not only future, also already present, as is the case of Gizzard , tanning in Second in his transfer to Deportivo. The Riquelme and Toni Moya they have already responded when they have been pulled. Garces and Camel you know what it is to score goals for him Cholo. Manu Sánchez He is currently the substitute for Lodi in the first team (with good minutes, too). Of Germán Valera everything is expected and Poveda added 10 goals in 10 games with B until his injury. They all have something in common: they have already debuted with Cholo, they are part of that list of 32 youth squads who have done so.Names like Saul, Thomas and Koke today they are the example, as they were before Gabi and Torres. The first two are the two field players most used by Simeone in this 2019-20 season (the captain is the fourth, behind Philip). All from home, youth squads. The generation of rojiblancos footballers who are now is ready to take the step forward (with more names pressing from the youth, like those of the central ones Manu Lama and Marco Moreno) if the club needs to look at its Academy in the football that comes after the coronavirus.THE BEST CANTERANOS OF THE ATLETICORiquelme. 20 years. RightmostHis daring and cheeky football captured the spotlight in Cholo’s last preseason. He assisted Llorente against the stars of the MLS and moved up to the second rojiblanco team, although he trains regularly with the first. Seven goals (two in the Youth League), six assists and an exhibition against Rangers makes him want half of Europe in addition to Betis. Contract ends in 2021.M. Sánchez. 19 years. Left sideIndisputable at B (he has played 82% of the minutes), he is the only natural replacement from Lodi for Cholo. The pure left back he trusts when he can’t send Saul to the side. He debuted this season with the first team against Osasuna with 63 great minutes that won praise (he also played in the Cup against Cultural Leonesa). It stands out for its sobriety and security. Play without nerves and without fear of raising the band, either in the B or in the first team. Renewed until 2023.
GALLERY: Barangay Ginebra back as PBA Governors’ Cup kings Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew The Blazers led by as many as 20 points in the first half but Stephen Curry’s 3-pointer tied it at 99 with 7:10 left.The Warriors couldn’t get ahead and Lillard’s 3-pointer put Portland up 109-101 with 5:05 to play.Durant’s 3-pointer closed Golden State to 114-111 but McCollum got a 3 for the Blazers on the other end with 2:15 left. Durant’s reverse layup and a pair of free throws cut the margin to 117-115 before Evan Turner’s free throws padded the lead for Portland.The teams traded free throws before Durant nailed a 3-pointer — but the officials said he stepped out of bounds. After review the call was confirmed and the Warriors (44-14) couldn’t catch up.“It was obviously kind of a signature win for us this year so far,” Blazers coach Terry Stotts said. “We knew we were going to have to score points to have a chance to beat them and we made a lot of good plays. Dame was terrific from the start.”ADVERTISEMENT Rockets win 10th straight, top Kings Warriors: Warriors coach Steve Kerr was asked before the game if he’s still feeling mentally fried. “No, I’m going to Hawaii tomorrow,” he said. … It was Golden State’s first game on Valentine’s Day since 2007. They had won five straight on the holiday. … Durant on the 50 points: “I took the same shots tonight as I always take. I just happened to get more of them up.”Trail Blazers: Lillard was presented with his All-Star jersey before the game. It will be Lillard’s third All-Star Game. … Former Blazer Bill Walton was part of the television broadcasting team, but during a few timeouts he joined the stunt team in tossing T-shirts to the crowd.SPEAKINGKerr spoke before the game about Wednesday’s school shooting in Florida.“Nothing has been done. It doesn’t seem to matter to our government that children are being shot to death day after day in schools. It doesn’t matter that people are being shot at a concert, movie theater. It’s not enough apparently to move our leadership, our government, the people who are running this country, to actually do anything. That’s demoralizing. But we can do something about it: We can vote people in who actually have the courage to protect people’s lives and not just bow down to the NRA because they financed their campaign for them. Hopefully we’ll find enough people, first of all, to vote good people in, but hopefully we can find enough people with courage to actually help our citizens remain safe and focus on the real safety issues, not building some stupid wall for billions of dollars that has nothing to do with our safety, but actually protecting us from what truly is dangerous, which is maniacs with semi-automatic weapons just slaughtering our children. It’s disgusting.”UP NEXT:Warriors: Host the Los Angeles Clippers on Feb. 22.Trail Blazers: Visit Utah on Feb. 23.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next UK plans Brexit celebrations but warns businesses may suffer Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES Phivolcs records 2 ‘discrete weak ash explosions’ at Taal Volcano Nueva Ecija warehouse making fake cigarettes raided, 29 Chinese workers nabbed CJ McCollum added 29 points for the Blazers (32-26), who go into the All-Star break six games over .500.“Going into the break, how tight the standings are in the West, needing to come up with a big win, and we came up with it. So it’s probably our best performance, if not the best then definitely top two or top three,” said Lillard, who has scored 133 points in the last three games, the highest point total for that span in franchise history.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkLillard is also the first player in the league this season with at least 39 points in three straight games.Portland spoiled Durant’s fifth career 50-point game and first this season. He added seven rebounds and six assists, but despite his efforts Golden State had its three-game winning streak snapped and fell a half-game behind Houston for the league’s best record. View comments Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Durant said the Warriors need to have more of a sense of urgency.“Teams get up to play us. They want to beat us, and they give us their best,” Durant said. “Some guys are going to have great nights against us. They did tonight.”Portland had lost four of its last six, including a 115-96 loss to the surging Utah Jazz on Sunday night.Blazers center Jusuf Nurkic left that game and was listed as questionable against the Warriors with low back soreness, a right calf strain, and right oblique pain. But he started and finished with 17 points and 13 rebounds.Golden State’s Draymond Green was also questionable with a sprained left index finger, but he also started and had 16 points and 12 rebounds.Portland jumped out to a 19-8 lead after Lillard hit a pair of 3-pointers and McCollum added another. Lillard’s layup extended the Blazers’ lead to 38-18.Lillard finished the first quarter with 18 points. Portland led 63-51 at the half.Durant made a 3-pointer and a free throw to narrow the score to 74-73 in the third quarter, his second four-point play of the game. It was as close as the Warriors could get in the quarter and Portland led 92-87 going into the final period. Durant had 18 points in the third quarter alone.The Blazers were 10 games below .500 at the All-Star break last season. Portland is in sixth place in the Western Conference, a half-game up on the Nuggets and Pelicans.“Like I said, it’s a tight race. There’s a lot of teams in the mix and you get to the point of the season where teams are fatigued physically and mentally,” Lillard said. “To be a leader of a team you’ve got to be willing to lead the charge, and not just by saying it, it has to be your actions.”TIP-INS Sea turtle trapped in net freed in Legazpi City Portland Trail Blazers guard Damian Lillard clenches his fist after scoring against the Golden State Warriors during the first half of an NBA basketball game in Portland, Ore., Wednesday, Feb. 14, 2018. (AP Photo/Steve Dipaola)PORTLAND, Ore. — Damian Lillard said it may have been Portland’s best win of the season.Lillard had 44 points and eight assists, and the Trail Blazers overcame Kevin Durant’s 50 points to snap a seven-game losing streak to the Golden State Warriors with a 123-117 victory on Wednesday night.ADVERTISEMENT Phivolcs records 2 ‘discrete weak ash explosions’ at Taal Volcano It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours MOST READ
Tourism Minister Cathy Hugheswith Guyana just a few days away from observing one of its most monumental events, the Public Telecommunications and Tourism Ministry has recorded a high tourist influx to Guyana, the result of which has hotels across the country filled to capacity, leading to more persons opening their homes as part of the “Bed and Breakfast” initiative.This was confirmed by Tourism Minister Cathy Hughes, who told Guyana Times on Friday that the feedback has been “tremendous” in terms of tourists and the Diaspora showing their interest in being a part of the grand celebrations.The Minister additionally reported that the support from the Guyanese population has been outstanding as more persons are indicating their interest in opening their homes to house the tourists.Hughes related that only on Thursday, 60 persons had turned out at the Ministry to enlist their names and undergo training to be part of the “bed and breakfast” initiative which is being implemented to facilitate the large turnout expected from the Diaspora.These training sessions, according to the Minister, provides a comprehensive approach to how these persons can house their guests, and what is expected of them. “The people are excited to get on board with the initiative and they are ready to go,” she noted.Since rooms are booked at the hotels, Hughes announced that persons visiting from the Diaspora or those in Guyana, who are looking for a city hotel, need to first make contact with the Ministry so that they could assist in locating places for them.She said that once contacted, the Ministry may be able to assign a place under the “Bread and Breakfast” initiative where the guests can stay for the period of time leading up to the anniversary, and after.According to the information received, frequent inspections of the premises earmarked to house the impending guests are carried out by the members of the initiative’s committee.The Tourism Minister outlined that restaurants across the city have recorded a significant improvement in their businesses as the demand for fast food is escalating with the increased number of visitors from the Diaspora.Smaller restaurants, however, have reported that their businesses remain the same since many are not aware of the locations, and prefer the larger food outlets, Hughes said.Nonetheless, it has been reported that there is an overall improvement to the tourism sector in Guyana, as the long list of activities are attracting a large number of tourists from countries across the world.Even before most of the activities had been hosted, the number of tourist arrivals had been on the rise, as airlines had recorded a boost to their services.Hughes said that as early as March, hotels and airlines were all booked up as persons, on hearing of the events, rushed to purchase tickets and make reservations.The Tourism Ministry, prior to the lead up to the 50th anniversary celebrations, had expressed optimism about the positive responses they would receive as the country celebrates its independence.Over the past months, a number of events have been planned to mark the Golden Jubilee Anniversary.Most persons, however, are anticipating the Jubilee Float Parade set for May 26, which will pattern of the Republic Day float parade.
Once again, terrifying predictions about the deadly Ebola virus resurfacing have begun to worry Liberians, health authorities and international partners fighting to stamp out its spread in some areas of the country.Such predictions and many other startling revelations by medical experts and Ebola task forces point accusing fingers at some Liberians returning to complacency, old habits and ignoring the health measures issued by medical authorities.During the weekend the Daily Observer visited some communities hard hit by Ebola to observe compliance with preventive measures instituted by the Liberian Government and international partners since the outbreak of the deadly virus in the country.Some of the communities visited by the Daily Observer to obtain comments and views were Soul Clinic, Wood Camp and Pipeline Road in the municipality of the Paynesville commercial district.In several encounters with community residents, their expressions were those of worry, frustration and discouragement.They feel that that many Liberians and foreign residents alike are returning to complacency and ignoring the general Ebola preventive measures established by medical authorities in Liberia.Notably, residents of those communities have abandoned the regular washing of hands, and have resumed shaking hands and hugging one another.The Daily Observer also noticed the conspicuous absence of the hundreds of Ebola buckets distributed by aid agencies, private citizens and non-governmental organizations.Another worrisome violation is that that a majority of the motorcyclists were observed transporting three to four passengers per trip in the Soul Clinic, Pipeline Road and Wood Camp communities in Paynesville.Moreover, commercial vehicle operators, with the acceptance of commuters, are also taking more passengers than required by the health authorities as the demand for transport rises.Private vehicle owners have also joined the bandwagon to transport relatives, friends and loved ones over the recommended capacity seemingly forgetting about the Ebola risk.In various interviews in the three Ebola-hit communities many people cautioned Liberians to desist with immediate effect from the dangerous practices and habits of overcrowding, shaking hands, hugging and unsafe burials.“As Liberians, graduating steadily from the menace of the deadly Ebola Virus Disease, we should continue to observe and uphold the health measures announced by health authorities and partners in all parts of our country,” businesswoman Martha B. Willie pleaded. “Let us maintain the splendid pace we as Liberians have kept in containing the deadly virus,” Madam Willie admonished.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
0Shares0000Maguire, 26, could make his debut in his new club’s Premier League opener at home to Chelsea on Sunday and United manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is confident he will live up to his hefty price tag.London, United Kingdom, Aug 5 – Manchester United signed Harry Maguire from Leicester on Monday for a reported £80 million (Sh10bn) fee that makes the England centre-back the world’s most expensive defender.United have secured Maguire on a six-year contract with an option for a further 12-month extension. The £75 million 9Sh9.4bn) Liverpool paid for Virgil van Dijk in 2018 was the previous record fee for a defender.However, Juventus’ capture of Van Dijk’s Netherlands teammate Matthijs de Ligt earlier this month (July) could rise to £77 million (Sh9.7bn) in add-ons.It is also a record fee between Premier League clubs, surpassing Van Dijk’s move to Anfield from Southampton and Romelu Lukaku’s switch from Everton to Manchester United.“I am delighted to have signed for this great club. I have thoroughly enjoyed my time at Leicester and would like to thank everyone at the club. However, when Manchester United come knocking on your door, it is an incredible opportunity,” Maguire told United’s website.“From my conversations with the manager, I am excited about the vision and plans he has for the team. It’s clear to see that Ole is building a team to win trophies. I am now looking forward to meeting my new team-mates and getting the season started.”Maguire, 26, could make his debut in his new club’s Premier League opener at home to Chelsea on Sunday and United manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is confident he will live up to his hefty price tag.“Harry is one of the best centre-backs in the game today and I am delighted we have secured his signature,” he said.“He is a great reader of the game and has a strong presence on the pitch, with the ability to remain calm under pressure – coupled with his composure on the ball and a huge presence in both boxes – I can see he will fit well into this group both on and off the pitch.“He has a great personality and is a fantastic addition to the club.”Manchester City had been interested in Maguire, but Pepe Guardiola admitted on Sunday that the champions couldn’t afford his huge fee.– Meteoric rise –Harry Maguire is set to become the world’s most expensive defender by joining Manchester United, according to reportsMaguire, 26, shot to prominence for his performances at last year’s World Cup as England reached the semi-finals for the first time since 1990.United were interested in his signature last summer, but baulked at Leicester’s asking price.A year on and with the heart of their defence brutally exposed in finishing sixth in the Premier League last season to miss out on Champions League qualification, the Red Devils finally paid the fee the Foxes’ demanded.Solskjaer had made strengthening central defence a priority, with that need only becoming more acute when Eric Bailly suffered a knee injury during the pre-season tour of China which is expected to keep him out for at least four months.Maguire’s arrival also continues the trend of United targeting young British talent rather than big-name foreign imports.The English giants have already splashed nearly £70 million on promising youngsters Daniel James and Aaron Wan-Bissaka.Maguire started his career at Sheffield United before making the leap into the Premier League with Hull in 2014.After impressing even as the Tigers were relegated two years ago, he joined Leicester in a £17 million deal.is England debut followed in October 2017 and he emerged as one of the unlikely stars of the World Cup, where he featured in all of the Three Lions’ seven games and scored in the quarter-final victory over Sweden.That signified a meteoric rise for Maguire who just two years previously had travelled as a fan to support England at Euro 2016.Nicknamed “slab head” by former Leicester teammate Jamie Vardy for his physical prowess in the air, Maguire has also impressed with his ability to play out from the back.However, City were less in need to break the bank for the 26-year-old after winning the first ever domestic treble of trophies in English football history.By contrast, United need to shore up a defence that conceded 54 goals in the Premier League last season and are counting on Maguire’s presence to cut the massive gap to rivals City and European champions Liverpool.0Shares0000(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)
THE Donegal GAA County Board is urging fans to buy their tickets early for this Sunday week’s National League clash with Monaghan.Entrance on the day will be €15 – but tickets can be bought online or at Centra outlets for €10.The Division Two game – at O’Donnell Park in Letterkenny on March 2 – is a re-match of last year’s Ulster final “We’re expecting a big crowd and fans would be better off getting tickets beforehand,” said PRO Ed Byrne.“It will ease the entry into the ground on the day – and save fans €5,” he added. DONEGAL FANS URGED TO SAVE €5 BY GETTING TICKETS EARLY FOR MONAGHAN CLASH was last modified: February 17th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalMonaghanO’Donnell Parktickets
BEO is back!The national final of the annual schools competition will be held in the Regional Cultural Centre, Letterkenny, this Friday.Babhta Ceannais IMRO Comórtas BEO 2015 is a national competition which enourages the nurturing and promotion of original music amongst second level school students. This year’s finalists are Colaiste na Carraige, Pobal Scoil na Rossan, Lón, St Joseph’s Castlebar, St Columba’s Stranorlar, Colaiste Ide agu Iosef and Scoil Phol Kilfinnan.Each school will begin the day of the competition with a ten-minute presentation followed by a 20-minute question period from the judges.Jackie Hayden from Hot Press will again be a judge.This year’s judges are Caitheoirleach Noel Mac Giolla Bhride; stalwart Irish music writer Jackie Hayden, Barbara Níc Dhonnacha (iRadio), Nadine Ní Mhaoldomhnaigh (Iarscolaire Coláiste Ailigh), as well as a surprise judge from IMRO.While the schools are presenting there will be an open mic session at 2pm. The Nameless and Johnny Weitbrecht will headline the open mic session at 3.20pm. There will also be a Wii, PlayStation and board games available to keep all entertained. Later on that evening there will be performances from DOGS, Team RKT, The Good Youth agus The Nameless as well as an address by Aire na Gaeltachta Joe Mc Hugh TD.This year’s BEO will come to a close with a disco with Johnny Weitbrecht. BEO IS BACK WITH A BANG AS NATIONAL FINAL TAKES PLACE TODAY was last modified: April 24th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:BANDSBeodonegalletterkenny
The cells of every living thing are filled with molecular machines, and one of the most fascinating is a rotary motor called ATP synthase (see April 2002 back issue, opening paragraph). This is a true mechanical/electrical motor, found in every living thing from bacteria to elephants and palm trees. It is really two motors in one; the top part, named F1, is where synthesis of ATP takes place (as described in previous entries on this subject; see Sept. 18 headline, for instance). The bottom machine, named F0, is like a carousel of 10 to 14 proteins labeled c subunits. This is the driving engine of this “splendid molecular machine” that spins at up to 6000 rpm. Somehow, it converts a proton flow into rotation. Ever since the rotary nature of this all-important enzyme was established around 1996, scientists have been eager to explain its operation in detail. According to four Swiss biochemists writing in a Minireview of the December issue of Structure,1 “Energy conversions are central to all life forms,” and this particular motor generates “the universal energy currency of living cells” (ATP). For these reasons, “The central metabolic role of ATP has stimulated much interest in how it is formed using the energy of oxidations or light. Research in this area has led to impressive progress, including some of the most spectacular discoveries in the history of biochemistry” (emphasis added in all quotes). Scientists have made great strides in explaining the F1 part of the machine (see Sept. 18 headline, for instance), but till recently, have been baffled at how the F0 motor generates torque. Now, these scientists present a model that suggests it spins by a water-induced electric potential – a waterwheel, on a 10-nanometer scale.. Their model, illustrated with cartoon drawings in the article, is fascinating, but too involved to describe in detail here. In short, they believe that water channels of different heights in the mitochondrial membrane create an electrical potential difference in the membrane that flows downhill across the stator (labeled with the letter a), a tall housing on the side of the carousel that contains tubes which open and close to prevent proton leakage. The stator looks something like the apparatus in a gumball machine. Think of protons as gumballs, channeled through slots that open up and allow them to roll in or out. Now, add a carousel to your machine that the gumballs have to ride around before dropping into the outlet slot. Then, imagine an electrical charge on the gumballs. As the gumball (proton) drops into its seat, it rides the carousel until it approaches the stator. There, it is repelled by a positively charged entity called Arg227 inside the stator housing, and it falls out. The empty seat, now negatively charged, is attracted by the potential difference between the water-filled inlet and outlet channels in the membrane. The empty seat is thus pushed through the stator, generating torque. Here, a gumball from another channel hops into the empty seat and takes its turn around the carousel. To summarize, water makes the wheel turn, converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, then into chemical energy in the form of ATP. The machinery is reversible. When the electrical potential reverses, the motor runs the other direction, and instead of the machine generating ATP, it consumes ATP and spits out protons. When no potential is present, the motor rocks back and forth in “idling mode” within certain angular limits, allowing protons to migrate into the gumball machine or out of it as the appropriate channels open or close. This can equalize the proton gradient inside and outside the membrane in a controlled manner. The machine would stay in idling mode if it weren’t for the electrical potential. The authors believe that “the membrane potential is the crucial driving force to induce the torque required for ATP synthesis.” Once the F0 carousel gets spinning in high gear, the attached camshaft forces precise conformational changes in the F1 subunits up above, generating three ATP per revolution. “The capacity of this process is impressive,” the authors write; “the daily turnover of a human has been estimated to be 40 kg [about 88 lb] of ATP on average.” Several quadrillions of these motors in your body keep your power plant running (see Feb. 5 headline), making you shine at 116 watts. Other scientists had tried to envision models invoking mechanical energy, thinking that the protein gradient in a c subunit induces a conformational change that turns the wheel. This electrical model, however, seems to not only account for the efficient generation of torque, idling, and reversibility, but also explain why some models of the motor have 14 c subunits (the seats on the carousel) and others have 10 or 11. The number of c subunits is apparently related to the membrane potential. A chloroplast ATP-synthase motor, with 14 subunits, runs at peak efficiency with half the potential (60 mV) required to turn a bacterial motor with 10 or 11 c subunits (120 mV). “To investigate whether this is a general principle and to address the interesting question how the two motors, which operate with a different number of steps, are synchronized, sophisticated biochemical investigations of the enzyme’s performance are required,” they conclude. Speaking of the performance of these machines, scientists have already determined that these motors approach 100% efficiency. Impossible at our scale, these tiny motors “cheat” thermodynamics by using random Brownian motion like a ratchet. Some models of the carousel run on alternate fuel: sodium ions instead of protons (hydrogen ions). A paper in PNAS2 last week discovered something interesting about a similar rotary machine, V0V1-ATP synthase or V-ATPase for short (see Feb. 24 headline). Unlike the F-ATPase model, the two parts of V0V1 can detach and re-attach reversibly. Iwata et al. studied a subunit that apparently clamps onto the two parts like a socket to hold them together, thereby keeping the central shaft locked into its correct position. Maybe this model could be viewed as the travelling carnival carousel that can be dismantled and installed on the road. Apparently V-ATPase motors are needed to maintain acid balance in many parts of the cell. The scientists describe where they are found: “They reside within intracellular compartments, including endosomes, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles, and within plasma membranes of certain cells including renal intercalated cells, osteoclasts, and macrophages. Eukaryotic V-ATPases are responsible for various cell functions including the acidification of intracellular compartments, renal acidification, born [sic; bone?] resorption, and tumor metastasis.”3 V-ATPase has a different-looking camshaft and stator; like F-ATPase, it is found in archaea, bacteria and higher organisms. It does all the ATP synthesis for the kind of bacteria that live in hot springs.1Peter Dimroth, Christoph von Ballmoos, Thomas Meier, and Georg Kaim, “Minireview: Electrical Power Fuels Rotary ATP Synthase,” Structure Vol 11, 1469-1473, December 2003.2Iwata et al., “Crystal structure of a central stalk subunit C and reversible association/dissociation of vacuole-type ATPase,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0305165101, published online Dec. 18, 2003.3Presumably, due to a failure in the system; the authors do not elaborate. See this article that suggests increased V-ATPase activity in a tumor is a response aimed at provoking cell death, or apoptosis.A popular book for young people and adults is called The Way Things Work by David Macaulay. He describes the inner workings of car engines, computers, the space shuttle, and many kinds of artificial machines. We need a book like this about cells. Now that we know a cell is composed of thousands of machines, wouldn’t it be cool to see them visualized in a popular way? The definitive textbook The Molecular Biology of the Cell is heavy, expensive ($120) and difficult to read, but creationist reviewers who understand it have remarked that it is filled with powerful evidence for design. We need to get this information before the eyes of the public. ATP synthase just screams for some high-tech, 3D fly-through computer animation. This one molecular machine, so small you would have to shrink yourself down a billionfold to even see it, could demolish Darwinism* all by itself. But then to think that the cell is filled with ten thousands of similar wonders (see yesterday’s headline, for instance, and another article in the same issue of Structure that argues a certain “chaperone machine should be regarded as a molecular motor,” actively employing force to fold a protein), and – well! Does the word overkill mean anything when raised to the fourth power?*Consider that this machine is made up of multiple, discrete units, each one a protein, and each protein is made up of hundreds of amino acids in a precise sequence. The Arg227 described above is an arginine amino acid residue in the 227th position of the stator protein. It is so critical to the operation of the motor, that if that one amino acid is changed to something else, the motor won’t work at all. (Scientists find these things out by artificially mutating individual amino acids and watching what happens.) The motor itself is irreducibly complex, but even more complex is the DNA code that contains all the genetic blueprints for all the parts, and the molecular machinery that builds the parts and then assembles them together in the right order, in the right place, in the right time. Think about how each protein must be folded properly by another host of machines that operate under strict quality control (see Dec. 21 headline). As the coup-de-grace, now realize that every living thing, down to the most primitive bacteria, already have working ATP synthase motors. Can anyone really believe this all evolved by chance? The gulf between the simplest living cell and any precursor is not just a canyon; it’s a light-year. Read our online book, Evolution: Possible or Impossible? if you need a little more convincing.(Visited 21 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Noah’s ark has landed in the Netherlands. Johan Huibers, a Dutch contractor built the model to showcase the Biblical story and renew interest in Christianity in a country that has lost its faith. Fox News, USA Today, the BBC News, the Christian Post, CBN and many other news sources carried versions of the Associated Press story. Visitors were stunned by the size of the model. One visitor described it is “past comprehension.” She said, “I knew the story of Noah, but I had no idea the boat would have been so big.” She might be more stunned to learn that Huibers’ model is only one-half the original as described in Genesis (see ChristianAnswers.net for measurements and artists’ reconstructions). The AP story quipped that this might help people concerned about rising sea levels from global warming. Nowhere did the reports claim that Huibers expected his model to be seaworthy, though. It’s more a museum. It will have a 50-seat theater, “ancient tools and old-fashioned barrels, exotic stuffed animals, and a wax model of an exhausted Noah reclining on a chair in the forecastle.” Huibers only looked half as exhausted.This is certainly better than the cartoony representations of Noah in a floating bathtub with elephant and giraffe heads sticking out the top. The true Ark’s dimensions ranked with those of large ocean liners. Anything that helps elucidate the actual story instead of mocking it like the BBC show in 2003 (03/10/2003) might help a jaded, secularized public think about Bible history more seriously. Maybe this limited project will inspire someone to build a full-size model. That would be a real stunner. Better start soon; it might take 100 years. (Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0