See also: The three countries have been sharing information on plague vaccines since 2000, and the United States and the UK have been working separately to develop them since the 1990s, the DoD said in an Apr 15 news release. The vaccines now being tested are “subunit” vaccines made of particular proteins found on the surface of Y pestis, rather than whole cells. CIDRAP overview of plaguehttp://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/bt/plague/biofacts/index.html Apr 15 DoD news releasehttp://www.defense.gov/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=8397 The vaccine prevented bubonic plague (the most common form of plague, associated with flea bites and leading to swollen lymph nodes, fever, and other symptoms) but did not protect against pneumonic plague (lung infection, usually from inhaling the pathogen). The DoD program is managed by the Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program in the office of the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense. Apr 21, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – The US Department of Defense (DoD) has announced plans to collaborate with the defense departments of Canada and the United Kingdom to develop a vaccine for plague, which would fill an empty slot in the nation’s current vaccine arsenal. “This joint effort will continue until late 2005, at which time the DoD will evaluate both vaccine candidates and select one for continued advanced development,” the statement said. A licensed vaccine against plague was available in the United States until 1999, when the single manufacturer stopped making it. It was used to immunize US troops during the Vietnam War, because plague was fairly common in Vietnam at the time. The product was a whole-cell vaccine that used inactivated Yersinia pestis, the plague bacterium. The British vaccine contains the plague organism’s F1 and V antigens, derived separately from recombinant Escherichia coli. “The DoD vaccine contains the F1 and V antigens linked together as a fusion protein,” the DoD statement said. It was developed by the US Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases and, according to previous reports, has been tested successfully in mice, ferrets, and monkeys. Plague is a fairly uncommon disease in the United States today, with 390 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1947 through 1996. But the plague agent is one of six pathogens the government believes terrorists are most likely to try to use as a biological weapon. An experimental plague vaccine developed by DoD is in a phase 1 clinical trial that began earlier this year at the University of Kentucky, the DoD announcement said. A British plague vaccine candidate will be tested in a separate phase 1 trial in the United States later this year.
The Ghana national hockey team, the Black Sticks, kicked off their 2019 African Hockey Olympic Qualifiers with a bang defeating rivals Kenya 3-2 at the Stellenbosch University in South Africa.The Kenyans are no strangers to their Ghanaian counterparts defeating them 4-3 to finish 3rd in the 2015 edition of the qualifiers, but couldn’t get past the tenacity of their opponents this time around as the Black Sticks came back twice from a goal down before sealing victory.Constant Wakhura got the ball rolling with a goal in the 28th minute before Exchequers’ Benjamin Kwofie got Ghana back in the game in the 37th minute, the 51st minute would see Kenya reclaim their lead through Festus Onyango but this wouldn’t last long as Ghana’s Elikem Akaba would get the goal back only after a minute. With the game heading towards a draw, Salya Nsalbini would convert a penalty corner in the dying seconds to secure the three points for Ghana.The Black Sticks will now face Namibia tomorrow 13 August, 2019 at 1PM GMT and you can catch it live on the Shoott South AfricaFacebook page.Vivan Narkuor brace leads Ghana to victory over Zimbabwe3-1 was the score at the Stellenbosch University, South Africa as the Ghanaian national female team defeated Zimbabwe to open their 2019 African Hockey Olympic Qualifiers with a victory. The last time these two countries faced each other was at the 2015 African Hockey Olympic Qualifiers with Ghana easing to a 4-0 victory in that encounter.Ghana’s Vivan Narkuor was on fire during the game scoring a brace in three minutes the first coming the 10th and her last goal coming in the 13th, but Zimbabwe came back strong getting a goal back in the 21st minute through Sophie McDonald before Roberta Sarfo put the game beyond doubt in the 36th minute.Next up for Ghana tomorrow 13th August, 2019 is Kenya who struggled to defeat Namibia by 1-0, you can also catch the action live on Shoott South Africa Facebook page.